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Because chemotherapy is not very effective against advanced kidney cancer, targeted therapies are now usually the first-line option to treat kidney cancers that cannot be removed by surgery or have spread outside the kidney. Clinical trials are now under way to see if combining these drugs, either with each other or with other types of treatment, might be better than using them alone. Prognostic utility of a multi-gene signature (the cell cycle proliferation score) in patients with renal cell carcinoma after radical nephrectomy. Cediranib monotherapy in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma: results of a randomised phase II study.
The potential roles of giving targeted drugs surgery (called neoadjuvant therapy) are also being studied. 2017 National Comprehensive Cancer Network Annual Conference.
Along with finding new medicines and looking at the best way to combine and sequence existing ones, a major area of research is finding better ways to choose the best treatment for each person.
Researchers are looking for which factors might make a person's cancer more likely to respond to a certain medicine. Effects and Side Effects of Using Sorafenib and Sunitinib in the Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Given this, scientists are looking to see if they can more accurately predict how long someone with kidney cancer may live by testing the kidney cancer for specific traits.
For example, one test checks how fast the cancer cells are dividing. Safety and activity of anti-PD-L1 antibody in patients with advanced cancer.
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Clinical trials of many new immunotherapy methods are being tested.
Basic research is now being directed toward a better understanding of the immune system, how to activate it, and how it reacts to cancer.